Archive for the ‘Uncategorized’ Category

Lesson 8- Formation of Volcano

April 21, 2006

I. Learning Objective:     

1. Describe how a volcano is formed.     

2. Show appreciation on the formation of volcanoes.     

3. Draw a volcano.

II. Concept/Terminologies:      Volcano

III. References:     

1. Into the Future: Science & Health 6

IV. Review of Related Lessons:

V. Lecture Presentation:     

1. Motivational Question:         

What famous volcanoes do you know? what makes this volcano famous? 

                 taal v.jpg                mayon.jpg     

2. Presenation:     

     Look at these pictures:

How are volcanoes made up of? today we're going to study how volcanoes are formed?     

                       volcano 21.jpg                    volcano 11.jpg      

     3. Summary:          

a. What is a volcano?          

b. What is it made up of?          

c. what happens underneath the earth's surface before the volcano is formed?          

d. What makes it erupt?          

e. What causes the magma to rise?          

f. How is volcano formed?          

g. What is the importance of volcanic formation? How does it help us?

VI. Learning Activities:      Log on to www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/earth/interior/volcano_formationhtml/ and www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/volcano

VII. Evaluation:

VIII. Assignment:

Lesson 7- Earthquake

April 20, 2006

I. Learning Objectives:     

1. How an earthquake occur?     

2. Differentiate volcanic earthquake from tectonic earthquake

II. Concent/Terminologies:     

1. earthquake- shaking and trembling of the earth's crust.     

2. volcanic earthquake- caused by the eruption of volcano     

3. tectonic earthquake- caused by the movement of earth crust.

III. References:     

1. Into the Future: Science & Health 6, pp. 197-198

IV. Review of Related Lessons:     

Identify the plate boundaries.

V. Lecture Presentation:       

1. Motivational Question:   

Study these pictures:   

          earthquake 5.jpg             focus 2.jpg       

2.Presenation: Log on to  www.wikipedia.org/wiki/earthquake and www.geo.mtu.edu.  

3. Summary:     

a. What are/is earthquake? Give another name for it.     

b. Differentiate the types of earthquake.     

c. What theory explains tectonic earthquake?     

d. How do we expain this theory?     

e. Explain how volcanic earthquake occurs.     

f. when do volcanic earthquake occur?      

g. Give other causes of earthquake.     

h. A newscaster reported that Mount Bulusan is showing a signs of volcanic activities. Is there a possibility that earthquake will occur and be felt in nearby towns in Sorsogon? Support your answer.

VI. Learning Activities:      For more Learning Activities Log on to www.seismo.unr.edu

VII. Evaluation:      Log on to www.crustal.ucsb.edu/ics/outreach/understanding/quiz

VIII.Assignment: For your assignment log on to www.fiu.edu/~smiral/erthqkqz.htm

Lesson 6- Layers of the Earth

April 20, 2006

I. Learning Objectives:

     1. What are the layers of the earth?

     2. Describe each layers.

     3. Draw the layers of the earth.

II. Concept/Terminologies:

     1. crust- outermost layer of the earth

     2. mantle- middle layer of the earth

     3. core- innermost layer of the earth

III.References:

     1. Into the Future: Science & Health 6, pp.196-198

     2. Science for Daily Use 6, pp. 174-175

IV.Review of Related Lesson:

     Look at the picture of the earth. What do you call the bluish part of the globe and the multicolored portion? Which represents the oceans and the continents?

                                earth 4.jpg

V. Lecture Presentation:

     1. Motivational Question:

If we cut the earth into two equal portions. How do you think it will look?

Do you have idea of what our planet is made up of?

    2.Presentation:

Study the picture:

           Earthscrustsm.gif                 earth 21.jpg 

     

     3. Summary:

       a. How many layers do you see?

       b. Describe each layers.

    c. How the layers of the Earth arranged?
    d. Why do you think the earth are layered?
    e. Earth is the only planet inhabited by man and animals. In what layer of the earth do man and animals live? 
     VI. Learning Activities:
    For more learning activities log on to www.volcano.und.nodak.edu/Earth_layers
     and www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/astronomy/planets/earth
     VII. Evaluation:
    Log on to www.prongo.com.quiz/station and www.syvum.com
    VIII. Assignment:
         Draw the layers of the earth.

Lesson 5- Food Chain

April 19, 2006

I. Learning Objectives:

     1. Construct food chain to illustrate feeding relationship.

     2. Interpret the meaning of food chain

II. Concept/ Terminologies:

     Food Chain- is the transfer of energy from plants to animals, and eventually decomposers. In the process of taking in food, consumers maybe classified as first, second, third fourth and higher.

III. References:

     1. Into the Future: Science and Health 6, pp. 58-63

     2. Science for Daily Use 6, pp. 34-36

IV. Review of Related Lesson

     Identify the living and non-living things in the picture.

                              ecosystem 1.jpg

V. Lecture Presentation:

     1. Motivational Question:

          What is the only living things that can produce food? Where do plants get the energy? What other things are needed by plants in food making process? How about man and animals, where do they depend for food?

     2. Presentation:

         Today we're going to find out the feeding relationship among organisms.

                               food chain 3.jpg

3. Summary:

     a. What is the existing feeding relationship among plants, animals and other organism?

     b. Why is the relationship called food chain?

     c. Who is the producer?

     d. Why a plant is called producer?

     e. Do plants depend on other organism for food?

     f. Who are the consumers?

     g. Why man and animals are called comsumers?

     h. In a food chain, can the eater be eaten by other organisms?

     i. In the same way, what organism get most energy? Why?

     j. What is the importance of Food Chain?

     k. Illustrate a food chain using these organism- cat, bird, palay grain & grasshopper.

VI. Learning Activities:

      For Learning Activities Log on to www.volweb.utk.edu/schools/bedford/thomas/foodchain and

  www.countrysidefoundation.org.uk

VII. Evaluation:

     Explain the Food Chain below.

                                   food chain 2.jpg

     Log on www.prongo.com.quiz/station.

 VIII. Assignment:

     Make your own Food Chain.

Lesson 4- Blood Vessels

April 18, 2006

I. Learning Objectives:

    1. What are the different types of blood vessels?
    2. What are the function of the blood vessels?
    3. Draw the blood vessels and label it

II. Concept or Terminologies:             

              a. Artery- carries the blood away from the heart. It is thick-walled.    

                b. Vein – carries the blood back to the heart. It is thin-walled.

  •  
        
      c. Capillary- is the smallest blood vessels that has wall that is only one cell thick.  
    • d. Arteriole – is a smaller branch of the artery. It connects an artery to the capillary.
    • e. Venule- is a small branch of the vein. It connects the vein to the capillary.

III. References:

    1.Into the Future: Science & Health VI, pp.17-18

IV. Review of Related Lesson:                

      What are the parts of the heart?

V. Lecture Presentation:                  

 Identify the parts of the heart by labeling them.   

                                         heart 2.jpg                                                       

    1. Motivational Question:
        Today we will discuss about the other parts of the circulatory system. Thay are the pipes or tubes. What are they called?
    Study the picture below.
                                    blood_vessels 1.jpg
  1.   Presentation:
    The Blood Vessels In class we talked about three types of blood vessels:
                                  artery1.jpg
    Arteries
    Arteries are blood vessels that carry oxygen rich blood AWAY from the heart. Remember, A A Arteries Away, A A Arteries Away, A A Arteries Away.

                                    capillaries1.jpg

    Capillaries
    Capillaries are tiny blood vessels as thin or thinner than the hairs on your head. Capillaries connect arteries to veins. Food substances(nutrients), oxygen and wastes pass in and out of your blood through the capillary walls. 

                                           veins 1.jpg

    Veins
    Veins carry blood back toward your heart.

    In a general sense, a vessel is defined as a hollow utensil for carrying something: a cup, a bucket, a tube. Blood vessels, then, are hollow utensils for carrying blood. Located throughout your body, your blood vessels are hollow tubes that circulate your blood. There are three varieties of blood vessels: arteries, veins, and capillaries. During blood circulation, the arteries carry blood away from the heart. The capillaries connect the arteries to veins. Finally, the veins carry the blood back to the heart.If you took all of the blood vessels out of an average child, and laid them out in one line, the line would be over 60,000 miles long! An adult's vessels would be closer to 100,000 miles long!Besides circulating blood, the blood vessels provide two important means of measuring vital health statistics: pulse and blood pressure. We measure heart rate, or pulse, by touching an artery. The rhythmic contraction of the artery keeps pace with the beat of the heart. Since an artery is near the surface of the skin, while the heart is deeply protected, we can easily touch the artery and get an accurate measure of the heart's pulse.When we measure blood pressure, we use the blood flowing through the arteries because it has a higher pressure than the blood in the veins. Your blood pressure is measured using two numbers. The first number, which is higher, is taken when the heart beats during the systole phase. The second number is taken when the heart relaxes during the diastole phase. Those two numbers stand for millimeters. A column of mercury rises and falls with the beat of the heart. The height of the column is measured in millimeters. Normal blood pressure ranges from 110 to 150 millimeters (as the heart beats) over 60 to 80 millimeters (as the heart relaxes). It is normal for your blood pressure to increase when you are exercising and to decrease when you are sleeping. If your blood pressure stays too high or too low, however, you may be at risk of heart disease.

Blood vessels are hollow tubes that carry blood through miles and miles of blood vessels in a never ending stream. If you could take all the blood vessels of a average size child and line them up they could reach about 60,000 miles long. In an adult the blood vessels could reach 100,000 miles long. The blood vessels carry blood between the heart, different tissues, and organs of the body. There are three types of blood vessels: arteries, veins, and capillaries. These blood vessels have the ability to expand to allow more blood to flow through them. They can also contract to help control the flow of blood. The blood flows through the big arteries into smaller ones. The smallest arteries, called arterioles, direct the blood flow into the capillaries. The capillaries connect to the smallest veins called venules. The Veins then return blood to the heart.

Arteries

The arteries are elastic, muscular tubes that carry the blood from the left ventricle of the heart to the capillaries. The walls of the arteries are thicker than the other vessels because of the high pressure. The largest artery is the aorta it is about 1 inch in diameter. The walls of the arteries are 3 layers thick. The inner layer, or tunica intima, consists of single flatten cells called endothelium. The middle layer, or tunica media, is the thicker part of the artery wall. The outer layer, or tunica externa is composed of fibrous connective tissue that give strength to the wall of the artery. The thickness of arteries depends on where it is located within the arterial system. The wall thickness of the arteries prevent the arteries from collapsing. Sometimes there is a weakness in a wall of an artery and this causes the artery to bulge. This abnormal expansion of the artery is called an aneurysm. There is also a problem of the arteries that involves lack of elasticity. This disease comes about because the wall of arteries becoming harden. This abnormal harding is called arteriosclerosis.

Veins

The veins carry blood from capillaries to the heart. The veins increase in size as they progress toward the heart. The veins that connect to the capillaries are venules.They are the smallest of the veins. The veins tend to follow a path parallel with the arteries. However, there are more veins than arteries this is due to the draining of large areas when needed. The veins at any one moment carries about 70 percent of the blood. The veins are like the arteries in that they have three layers in their walls. However, they are not as thick as arteries. This would also correlate with the lower pressure of blood within them. Located with the veins are valves that allow blood to flow toward the heart but does not allow blood to flow backwards. The veins that are in the lower part of the body tend to have more valves to counteract the force of gravity. The only vein that does not have valves is the vena cava. The valves in the legs sometimes breakdown and allow the blood to flow backwards. This is called varicose veins and is more prevalent in person who stand for long periods of time on hard surfaces.

Capillaries

The capillaries are the smallest working unit in the blood vessels that connect the arterioles to the venules. The walls of the capillaries are only 1 cell thick this allows for the exchange of nutrients and other substances like oxygen and carbon dioxide. Each of the cells in the walls of the capillaries have openings between them so that the exchange can take place. The number of capillaries vary depending on the need for oxygen and other nutrients. The blood flow through the capillaries is regulated by a sphincter, a ring of muscle, that contracts to control the flow of blood through the capillaries. This is important because there would not be enough blood to fill all the blood vessels at one time. This is understandable when one sees that an individual could have between 25,000 to 60,000 miles of capillaries

3. Summary:    

a. What are the three kinds of blood vessels?    

b. Differentiate the three kinds of blood vesels from one another?    

c. why do arteries appear reddish while veins appear bluish?   

d. How do blood flows in the capillaries?   

e. Why does blood do not flow backward?

 f. How are veins connected to the capillaries? Arteries to Capillaries?

 g. Which blood vessels will have a greater pressure, the vein or the artery?

h. Why do you think so?

i. What blood vessels that have valve?

j. Why do you think does the blood squirts when the artery is cut?

k. Why can exchange of gases, nutrients, water,and waste occur in the capillaries?

VI. Learning activities.

     For more Learning activities log on to  www.teacherlink.ed.usu.edu/units

and     www.syvum.com/cgi

VII. Evaluation

      Log on to www.prongo.com.quiz/station.

VIII. Assignment:

     Prepare a comic strip of the 3 kinds of blood vessels. Each of them should argue regarding who is more important.


Lesson 3- The Blood Cells

April 18, 2006

I. Learning Objective:

      1. Describe the blood.

      2. Tell the function of the blood

      3. Show proper care for the blood

II. Concept/Terminologies:

      1. Blood Cells- cells that flows in our body

       a. RBC- responsible for carrying oxygen and carbon dioxide.
       b. WBC- fight germs that enter in our body. 
       c. platelets- responsible for blood clotting.
       d. plasma-liquid portion of our blood

III. References:

   1. Science for Daily Use, pp. 6-7

   2. Into the Future: Science & Health, pp. 11-16

IV. Review of Related Lessons:

          What is heart? What are the parts of the heart?

V. Lecture  Presentation:

   1. Motivational Question:

     a. Which is the red river of life? Why is it called as such?

     b. What is the blood made of?

  2 .Presentation:

     Examine the picture of blood.

                               blood cells 1.jpg  

Identify the cells and differentiate each other.

Blood Cells                 1229098668.jpg

Red Blood Cells
Red Blood Cells are responsible for carrying oxygen and carbon dioxide. Red Blood Cells pick up oxygen in the lungs and transport it to all the body cells. After delivering the oxygen to the cells it gathers up the carbon dioxide(a waste gas produced as our cells are working) and transports carbon dioxide back to the lungs where it is removed from the body when we exhale(breath out). There are about 5,000,000 Red Blood Cells in ONE drop of blood.

                                        wbc.jpg

White Blood Cells (Germinators)
White Blood Cells help the body fight off germs. White Blood Cells attack and destroy germs when they enter the body. When you have an infection your body will produce more White Blood Cells to help fight an infection. Sometimes our White Blood Cells need a little help and the Doctor will prescribe an antibiotic to help our White Blood Cells fight a large scale infection.

                                                          platelets.jpg

                                          

Platelets
Platelets are blood cells that help stop bleeding. When we cut ourselves we have broken a blood vessel and the blood leaks out. In order to plug up the holes where the blood is leaking from the platelets start to stick to the opening of the damaged blood vessels. As the platelets stick to the opening of the damaged vessel they attract more platelets, fibers and other blood cells to help form a plug to seal the broken blood vessel. When the platelet plug is completely formed the wound stops bleeding. We call our platelet plugs scabs.

                                      plasma.jpg

Plasma
Plasma is the liquid part of the blood. Approximately half of your blood is made of plasma. The plasma carries the blood cells and other components throughout the body. Plasma is made in the liver.

Where are the blood cells made?
The Red Blood Cells, White Blood Cells and Platelets are made by the bone marrow. Bone marrow is a soft tissue inside of our bones that produces blood cells.

3. Summary:

     a. What is the red river of life?

   b. What are the three kinds of blood cells? 

   c. What are the function of each?

   d. Why is blood called the red river of life?

   e. What will happen to a person if he/she suffers profuse bleeding?

   f. What should we do in order to maintain good blood circulation?

VI. Learning activies:

     For more learning activities log on to www.wps.aw.com/bc_mariel_ehap and www.auth.mbhe.com/cgi_bin/netquiz

VII. Evaluation:

      Log on to www.prongo.com/qiuzstation.

VIII. Assignment:

          For your assignment log on to www.wps.aw.com/bc_mariel 

     Chapter 10, Quiz 1&2.

Lesson I- Parts of the Circulatory System

April 17, 2006

I. Learning Objectives

  1. What are the major parts of a Circulatory System?
  2. Show proper care to our circulatory system.

II. Concept/Terminologies:

 Circulatory System- is responsible for transporting materials throughout the entire body.

  1. heart- is an amazing organ. Keeps on pumping blood in our body.
  2. blood – is an amazing substances that is constantly flowing through our bodies.
  3. blood vessels- passageway of the blood.

III. References:

  1. Science for Daily Use, pp. 2-4
  2. Into the Future: Science & Health 6, pp. 2-5

IV. Review of Related Lessons:

           Look at the picture.   What system are these?  

             skeleton.jpg             digestive.jpg                respiratory.jpg

V. Lecture Presentation:

  1. Motivational Question:

       Have you ever wondered how food elements reach up the tip of your nail? How do you think food elements reach every part of our body?          

2. Presentation:

      Have you ever wondered how food, oxygen and other substances reach the different parts of your body? And how the waste product that your body produces after using food and oxygen are brought out of the body? Look at the picture. What system is this? Books, pp.  

                                      circulatory_systemL.gif  

What is the job of the Circulatory System? The Circulatory System is responsible for transporting materials throughout the entire body. It transports nutrients, water, and oxygen to your billions of body cells and carries away wastes such as carbon dioxide that body cells produce. It is an amazing highway that travels through your entire body connecting all your body cells.

 

Parts of the Circulatory System
The circulatory System is divided into three major parts:

  1. The Heart
  2. The Blood
  3. The Blood Vessels

The Heart

The Heart is an amazing organ. The heart beats about 3 BILLION times during an average lifetime. It is a muscle about the size of your fist. The heart is located in the center of your chest slightly to the left. It's job is to pump your blood and keep the blood moving throughout your body.

It is your job to keep your heart healthy and there are three main things you need to remember in order to keep your heart healthy.

  1. Exercise on a regular basis. Get outside and play. Keep that body moving (walk, jog, run, bike, skate, jump, swim).
  2. Eat Healthy. Remember the Food Pyramid and make sure your eating your food from the bottom to top.
  3. Don't Smoke! Don't Smoke! Don't Smoke! Don't Smoke! Don't Smoke!

 

The Blood

The blood is an amazing substance that is constantly flowing through our bodies.

  • Your blood is pumped by your heart.
  • Your blood travels through thousands of miles of blood vessels right within your own body.
  • Your blood carries nutrients, water, oxygen and waste products to and from your body cells.
  • A young person has about a gallon of blood. An adult has about 5 quarts.
  • Your blood is not just a red liquid but rather is made up of liquids, solids and small amounts of oxygen and carbon dioxide.

Blood Cells 

The Red Blood Cells, White Blood Cells and Platelets are made by the bone marrow. Bone marrow is a soft tissue inside of our bones that produces blood cells.

The Blood VesselsIn class we talked about three types of blood vessels:

  1. Arteries
  2. Capillaries
  3. Veins
AMAZING FACTS
  • One drop of blood contains a half a drop of plasma, 5 MILLION Red Blood Cells, 10 Thousand White Blood Cells and 250 Thousand Platelets.
  • You have thousands of miles of blood vessels in your body. "Bill Nye the Science Guy" claims that you could wrap your blood vessels around the equator TWICE!
  • Keep your heart healthy…it's going to have to beat about 3 BILLION times during your lifetime!

    3. Summary:

  1. What are the parts of the circulatory system we have identified?
  2. Which produces the beat?
  3. What is the duty of the blood in our body?
  4. What s the function of the blood vessels?
  5. Which organ in the drawing are not part of the circulatory system? why are they shown?
  6. Why do you think the heart is a very strong muscular organ?
  7. what are the things to remember in order to have a healthy heart?

VI. Learning Activities:

      For more leraning activities log on to www.thepotters.com/puzzle/circulatory.html and

    www.quia.com/rr/30450.html

VII. Evaluation:

      For your evaluation log on to www.prongo.com/quizstation

VIII. Assignment

      Draw the Circulatory system and label it.

Lesson 2- The Heart

April 17, 2006

I. Learning Objectives:

  1. Identify the parts of the heart and tell each functions.
  2. Draw and label the parts of the heart
  3. Show proper care and concern about the healthiness of the heart.

II. Concept/Terminologies:      

1. Heart – one of the most important organs in the entire human body.                

a. atrium- receives blood.                

b. ventricle-sends blood.

III. References:

    1. Science for Daily Use VI, pp. 10-12

        2. Into the Future Science & Health 6, pp. 6-9 IV.

IV.Review of Related Lesson:

1. What are the major parts/organs of circulatory system.                   

Identify in the picture

                          circulatory 1.gif           

 V. Lecture Presentation:

  1. Motivational Question: 

             Feel your heart. What does your heart do for you? What do you think is the size    of the heart?    

   2. Presentation:         

  What are the parts of the heart?  

See Picture:        

Refer to pages 6-9, Into the Future Science & Health 6.

         heart 1.jpg10808950453.jpg

Establishment of the four-chambered heart, along with the pulmonary and systemic circuits, completely separates oxygenated from deoxygenated blood. This allows higher the metabolic rates needed by warm-blooded birds and mammals. The above image is from http://www.biosci.uga.edu/almanac/bio_104/notes/may_7.html. The human heart is a two-sided, 4 chambered structure with muscular walls. An atrioventricular (AV) valve separates each auricle from ventricle. A semilunar (also known as arterial) valve separates each ventricle from its connecting artery. The heart beats or contracts 70 times per minute. The human heart will undergo over 3 billion contraction cycles during a normal lifetime. The cardiac cycle consists of two parts: systole (contraction of the heart muscle) and diastole (relaxation of the heart muscle). Atria contract while ventricles relax. The pulse is a wave of contraction transmitted along the arteries. Valves in the heart open and close during the cardiac cycle. Heart muscle contraction is due to the presence of nodal tissue in two regions of the heart. The SA node (sinoatrial node) initiates heartbeat. The AV node (atrioventricular node) causes ventricles to contract. The AV node is sometimes called the pacemaker since it keeps heartbeat regular. Heartbeat is also controlled by the autonomic nervous system. The cardiac cycle. Image from Purves et al., Life: The Science of Biology, 4th Edition, by Sinauer Associates (www.sinauer.com) and WH Freeman (www.whfreeman.com), used with permission. Blood flows through the heart from veins to atria to ventricles out by arteries. Heart valves limit flow to a single direction. One heartbeat, or cardiac cycle, includes atrial contraction and relaxation, ventricular contraction and relaxation, and a short pause. Normal cardiac cycles (at rest) take 0.8 seconds. Blood from the body flows into the vena cava, which empties into the right atrium. At the same time, oxygenated blood from the lungs flows from the pulmonary vein into the left atrium. The muscles of both atria contract, forcing blood downward through each AV valve into each ventricle. Diastole is the filling of the ventricles with blood. Ventricular systole opens the SL valves, forcing blood out of the ventricles through the pulmonary artery or aorta. The sound of the heart contracting and the valves opening and closing produces a characteristic "lub-dub" sound. Lub is associated with closure of the AV valves, dub is the closing of the SL valves. Human heartbeats originate from the sinoatrial node (SA node) near the right atrium. Modified muscle cells contract, sending a signal to other muscle cells in the heart to contract. The signal spreads to the atrioventricular node (AV node). Signals carried from the AV node, slightly delayed, through bundle of His fibers and Purkinjie fibers cause the ventricles to contract simultaneously. The contraction of the heart and the action of the nerve nodes located on the heart. Images from Purves et al., Life: The Science of Biology, 4th Edition, by Sinauer Associates (www.sinauer.com) and WH Freeman (www.whfreeman.com), used with permission. An electrocardiogram (ECG) measures changes in electrical potential across the heart, and can detect the contraction pulses that pass over the surface of the heart. There are three slow, negative changes, known as P, R, and T. Positive deflections are the Q and S waves. The P wave represents the contraction impulse of the atria, the T wave the ventricular contraction. ECGs are useful in diagnosing heart abnormalities. Normal cardiac pattern (top) and some abnormal patterns (bottom). Images from Purves et al., Life: The Science of Biology, 4th Edition, by Sinauer Associates (www.sinauer.com) and WH Freeman (www.whfreeman.com), used with permission.

The Human Heart

The heart is one of the most important organs in the entire human body. It is really nothing more than a pump, composed of muscle which pumps blood throughout the body, beating approximately 72 times per minute of our lives. The heart pumps the blood, which carries all the vital materials which help our bodies function and removes the waste products that we do not need. For example, the brain requires oxygen and glucose, which, if not received continuously, will cause it to loose consciousness. Muscles need oxygen, glucose and amino acids, as well as the proper ratio of sodium, calcium and potassium salts in order to contract normally. The glands need sufficient supplies of raw materials from which to manufacture the specific secretions. If the heart ever ceases to pump blood the body begins to shut down and after a very short period of time will die.

The heart is essentially a muscle(a little larger than the fist). Like any other muscle in the human body, it contracts and expands. Unlike skeletal muscles, however, the heart works on the "All -or-Nothing Law". That is, each time the heart contracts it does so with all its force. In skeletal muscles, the principle of "gradation" is present. The pumping of the heart is called the Cardiac Cycle, which occurs about 72 times per minute. This means that each cycle lasts about eight-tenths of a second. During this cycle the entire heart actually rests for about four-tenths of a second.

Make-up of the Heart.

The walls of the heart are made up of three layers, while the cavity is divided into four parts. There are two upper chambers, called the right and left atria, and two lower chambers, called the right and left ventricles. The Right Atrium, as it is called, receives blood from the upper and lower body through the superior vena cava and the inferior vena cava, respectively, and from the heart muscle itself through the coronary sinus. The right atrium is the larger of the two atria, having very thin walls. The right atrium opens into the right ventricle through the right atrioventicular valve(tricuspid), which only allows the blood to flow from the atria into the ventricle, but not in the reverse direction. The right ventricle pumps the blood to the lungs to be reoxygenated. The left atrium receives blood from the lungs via the four pulmonary veins. It is smaller than the right atrium, but has thicker walls. The valve between the left atrium and the left ventricle, the left atrioventicular valve(bicuspid), is smaller than the tricuspid. It opens into the left ventricle and again is a one way valve. The left ventricle pumps the blood throughout the body. It is the Aorta, the largest artery in the body, which originates from the left ventricle.

The Heart works as a pump moving blood around in our bodies to nourish every cell. Used blood, that is blood that has already been to the cells and has given up its nutrients to them, is drawn from the body by the right half of the heart, and then sent to the lungs to be reoxygenated. Blood that has been reoxygenated by the lungs is drawn into the left side of the heart and then pumped into the blood stream. It is the atria that draw the blood from the lungs and body, and the ventricles that pump it to the lungs and body. The output of each ventricle per beat is about 70 ml, or about 2 tablespoons. In a trained athlete this amount is about double. With the average heart rate of 72 beats per minute the heart will pump about 5 litres per ventricle, or about 10 litres total per minute. This is called the cardiac output. In a trained athlete the total cardiac output is about 20 litres. If we multiply the normal, non-athlete output by the average age of 70 years, we see that the cardiac output of the average human heart over a life time would be about 1 million litres, or about 250,000 gallons(US)! 3.     

     3. Summary:             

a. What kind of organ is the heart?              

 b. What are the inner parts of the heart?                                                

c. Describe the parts and function of each heart              

d. Why is the ventricle thicker than the atrium?             

e. What does the heart pump? Why is it important?             

f. Can you live without the heart? Why?            

g. What are thing you do in order to show your love and care in your heart?

VI. Learning Activities:      

For more learning activities log on to www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/eheart/human.html and www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/heart/heartfacts/html

VII. Evaluation: Log on to www.prongo.com/quizstation

VIII. Assignment:       Draw a heart and label it.

Function of the Circulatory System

April 7, 2006

1080895045.jpg870233232.jpg

I. Objectives: 

     Describe the function of each part (PELC 1.2)

     Describe the heart (PELC 1. 2 Subtask)

     Show proper concern about the healthuness of the heart

     Work cooperatively  and attentively

II. Subject Matter- The Heart

     A. References

       Into the Future: Science and Health VI, pp6-9

       Science for Daily Use VI, pp 5-6

     B. Concept:

       The heart is a hollow and tough muscle organ, located slightly the left of the chest.

       It is divided into two upper chambers( left and right atria0 and two lower chambers (left and right ventricles.)

     C. Values:

       Cooperation, teamwork,awareness on the heatlthiness of the heart.

     D. Processes:

       Observing, inferring, describing, communicating, experimenting

     E. Materials:

       strips of paper with written questions place in a box

      picture or chart of the heart

     heart of a chicken, pig or cow

 III. Procedure

     A. Preparatory Activities:

       1. Check up all assignment or homework ( see previous lesson.)

       2. Recall

          Questions written on strips of paper to be picked up from the box.

     B. Lesson Proper

       1. Motivation

          Feel your heart. What does your heart do for you? what do you think is the size of the Heart?

        2. Presentation ( Free Exploration)

          Let us recall the precautionary measures in doing activities. ( See the Activity Sheet at the end of the lesson plan)

       3. Comparison and abstraction

          Can you name the structure found inside the heart?

          What kind of organ is the heart?

          What are the parts present in the heart of other parts of the body?

          What parts connect the heart to the other parts of the body?

         Can you describe the difference of each parts?

         Why is the ventricle thicker than the atrium?

          What does the heart pump? Why is it important?

      4. Generalization

       What are the parts of the heart? What is the function of each part?

     5. Application

       Can you live without the heart? Why?

IV. Evaluation:

     Use Rubrics

    www.prongo.com/quizstation

V. Assignment:

      Draw the heart and label its parts.

Major parts of the ciculatory system.

April 7, 2006

I. Identify the major parts of the circulatory system. (PELC 1, p.3) 

II. Subject Matter:

Major Parts of the Circulatory System

a. References:

    Science for Daily Use VI, pp.2-4

    Into the Future Science and Health VI, pp 2-5

b. Concept:

    The heart,blood and blood vessels are the major parts of the circulatory system.

c. Value:1080895045.jpg

    Appreciatio, cooperation

d. Processes:

     Describing, inferring, identifying

e. Pictures/Illustration on the parts of the heart

III. Procedures:

a. 1. Science Song

    2. Recall: